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Entries in inversion (11)

Thursday
Jun202013

A stupid seismic model from core

On the plane back from Calgary, I got an itch to do some image processing on some photographs I took of the wonderful rocks on display at the core convention. Almost inadvertently, I composed a sequence of image filters that imitates a seismic response. And I came to these questions:  

  • Is this a viable way to do forward modeling? 
  • Can we exploit scale invariance to make more accurate forward models?
  • Can we take the fabric from core and put it in a reservoir model?
  • What is the goodness of fit between colour and impedance? 

Click to enlargeAbove all, this image processing excerise shows an unambiguous demonstration of the effects of bandwidth. The most important point, no noise has been added. Here is the sequence, it is three steps: convert to grayscale, compute Laplacian, apply bandpass filter. This is analgous to the convolution of a seismic wavelet and the earth's reflectivity. Strictly speaking, it would be more physically sound to make a forward model using wavelet convolution (simple) or finite difference simulation (less simple), but that level of rigour was beyond the scope of my tinkering.

The two panels help illustrate a few points. First, finely layered heterogeneous stratal packages coalesce into crude seismic events. This is the effect of reducing bandwidth. Second, we can probably argue about what is 'signal' and what is 'noise'. However, there is no noise, per se, just geology that looks noisy. What may be mistaken as noise, might in fact be bonafide interfaces within material properties. 

If the geometry of geology is largely scale invariant, perhaps, just perhaps, images like these can be used at the basin and reservoir scale. I really like the look of the crumbly fractures near the bottom of the image. This type of feature could drive the placement of a borehole, and the production in a well. The patches, speckles, and bands in the image are genuine features of the geology, not issues of quality or noise. 

Do you think there is a role for transforming photographs of rocks into seismic objects?

Thursday
May162013

Fitting a model to data

In studying the earth, we can't afford to take enough observations, and they will never be free of noise. So if you say you do geoscience, I hereby challenge you to formulate your work as a mathematical inverse problem. Inversion is a question: given the data, the physical equations, and details of the experiment, what is the distribution of physical properties? To answer this question we must address three more fundamental ones (Scales, Smith, and Treitel, 2001):

  • How accurate is the data? Or what does fit mean?
  • How accurately can we model the response of the system? Have we included all the physics that can contribute signifcantly to the data?
  • What is known about the system independent of the data? There must be a systematic procedure for rejecting unreasonable models that fit the data as well.

Setting up an inverse problem means coming up with the equations that contain the physics and geometry of the system under study. The method for solving it depends on the nature of the system of equations. The simplest is the minimum norm solution, and you've heard of it before, but perhaps under a different name.

To fit is to optimize a system of equations

For problems where the number of observations is greater than the number of unknowns, we want to find which unknowns fit the best. One case you're already familiar with is the method of least squares — you've used it fitting a line of through a set of points. A line is unambiguously described by only two parameters: slope a and y-axis intercept b. These are the unknowns in the problem, they are the model m that we wish to solve for. The problem of line-fitting through a set of points can be written out like this,

As I described in a previous post, the system of the problem takes the form d = Gm, where each row links a data point to an equation of a line. The model vector m (M × 1), is smaller than the data d (N × 1) which makes it an over-determined problem, and G is a N × M matrix holding the equations of the system.

Why cast a system of equations in this matrix form? Well, it turns out that the the best-fit line is precisely,

which are trivial matrix operations, once you've written out G.  T means to take the transpose, and –1 means the inverse, the rest is matrix multiplication. Another name for this is the minimum norm solution, because it defines the model parameters (slope and intercept) for which the lengths (vector norm) between the data and the model are a minimum. 

One benefit that comes from estimating a best-fit model is that you get the goodness-of-fit for free. Which is convenient because making sense of the earth doesn't just mean coming up with models, but also expressing their uncertainty, in terms of the errors with which they are linked.

I submit to you that every problem in geology can be formulated as a mathematical inverse problem. The benefit of doing so is not just to do math for math's sake, but it is only through quantitatively portraying ambiguous inferences and parameterizing non-uniqueness that we can do better than interpreting or guessing. 

Reference (well worth reading!)

Scales, JA, Smith, ML, and Treitel, S (2001). Introductory Geophysical Inverse Theory. Golden, Colorado: Samizdat Press

Tuesday
Apr162013

Backwards and forwards reasoning

Most people, if you describe a train of events to them will tell you what the result will be. There will be few people however, that if you told them a result, would be able to evolve from their own consciousness what the steps were that led to that result. This is what I mean when I talk about reasoning backward.
— Sherlock Holmes, A Study in Scarlet, Sir Arthur Conan Doyle (1887)

Reasoning backwards is the process of solving an inverse problem — estimating a physical system from indirect data. Straight-up reasoning, which we call the forward problem, is a kind of data collection: empiricism. It obeys a natural causality by which we relate model parameters to the data that we observe.

Modeling a measurement

Where are you headed? Every subsurface problem can be expressed as the arrow between two or more such panels.Inverse problems exists for two reasons. We are incapable of measuring what we are actually interested in, and it is impossible to measure a subject in enough detail, and in all aspects that matter. If, for instance, I ask you to determine my weight, you will be troubled if the only tool I allow is a ruler. Even if you are incredibly accurate with your tool, at best, you can construct only an estimation of the desired quantity. This estimation of reality is what we call a model. The process of estimation is called inversion.

Measuring a model

Forward problems are ways in which we acquire information about natural phenomena. Given a model (me, say), it is easy to measure some property (my height, say) accurately and precisely. But given my height as the starting point, it is impossible to estimate the me from which it came. This is an example of an ill-posed problem. In this case, there is an infinite number of models that share my measurements, though each model is described by one exact solution. 

Solving forward problems are nessecary to determine if a model fits a set of observations. So you'd expect it to be performed as a routine compliment to interpretation; a way to validate our assumptions, and train our intuition.  

The math of reasoning

Forward and inverse problems can be cast in this seemingly simple equation.

Gm=d,

where d is a vector containing N observations (the data), m is a vector of M model parameters (the model), and G is a N × M matrix operator that connects the two. The structure of G changes depending on the problem, but it is where 'the experiment' goes. Given a set of model parameters m, the forward problem is to predict the data d produced by the experiment. This is as simple as plugging values into a system of equations. The inverse problem is much more difficult: given a set of observations d, estimate the model parameters m.

I think interpreters should describe their work within the Gm = d framework. Doing so would safeguard against mixing up observations, which should be objective, and interpretations, which contain assumptions. Know the difference between m and d. Express it with an arrow on a diagram if you like, to make it clear which direction you are heading in.

Illustrations for this post were created using data from the Marmousi synthetic seismic data set. The blue seismic trace and its corresponding velocity profile is at location no. 250.

Thursday
Apr112013

How to get paid big bucks

Yesterday I asked 'What is inversion?' and started looking at problems in geoscience as either forward problems or inverse problems. So what are some examples of inverse problems in geoscience? Reversing our forward problem examples:

  • Given a suite of sedimentological observations, provide the depositional environment. This is a hard problem, because different environments can produce similar-looking facies. It is ill-conditioned, because small changes in the input (e.g. the presence of glaucony, or Cylindrichnus) produces large changes in the interpretation.
  • Given a seismic trace, produce an impedance log. Without a wavelet, we cannot uniquely deduce the impedance log — there are infinitely many combinations of log and wavelet that will give rise to the same seismic trace. This is the challenge of seismic inversion. 

To solve these problems, we must use induction — a fancy name for informed guesswork. For example, we can use judgement about likely wavelets, or the expected geology, to constrain the geophysical problem and reduce the number of possibilities. This, as they say, is why we're paid the big bucks. Indeed, perhaps we can generalize: people who are paid big bucks are solving inverse problems...

  • How do we balance the budget?
  • What combination of chemicals might cure pancreatic cancer?
  • What musical score would best complement this screenplay?
  • How do I act to portray a grief-stricken war veteran who loves ballet?

What was the last inverse problem you solved?

Wednesday
Apr102013

What is inversion?

Inverse problems are at the heart of geoscience. But I only hear hardcore geophysicists talk about them. Maybe this is because they're hard problems to solve, requiring mathematical rigour and computational clout. But the language is useful, and the realization that some problems are just damn hard — unsolvable, even — is actually kind of liberating. 

Forwards first

Before worrying about inverse problems, it helps to understand what a forward problem is. A forward problem starts with plenty of inputs, and asks for a straightforward, algorithmic, computable output. For example:

  • What is 4 × 5?
  • Given a depositional environment, what sedimentological features do we expect?
  • Given an impedance log and a wavelet, compute a synthetic seismogram.

These problems are solved by deductive reasoning, and have outcomes that are no less certain than the inputs.

Can you do it backwards?

You can guess what an inverse problem looks like. Computing 4 × 5 was pretty easy, even for a geophysicist, but it's not only difficult to do it backwards, it's impossible:

20 = what × what

You can solve it easily enough, but solutions are, to use the jargon, non-unique: 2 × 10, 7.2 × 1.666..., 6.3662 × π — you get the idea. One way to deal with such under-determined systems of equations is to know about, or guess, some constraints. For example, perhaps our system — our model — only includes integers. That narrows it down to three solutions. If we also know that the integers are less than 10, there can be only one solution.

Non-uniqueness is a characteristic of ill-posed problems. Ill-posedness is a dead giveaway of an inverse problem. Proposed by Jacques Hadamard, the concept is the opposite of well-posedness, which has three criteria:

  • A solution exists.
  • The solution is unique.
  • The solution is well-conditioned, which means it doesn't change disproportionately when the input changes. 

Notice the way the example problem was presented: one equation, two unknowns. There is already a priori knowledge about the system: there are two numbers, and the operator is multiplication. In geoscience, since the earth is not a computer, we depend on such knowledge about the nature of the system — what the variables are, how they interact, etc. We are always working with a model of nature.

Tomorrow, I'll look at some specific examples of inverse problems, and Evan will continue the conversation next week.